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Everything to know about "Glutamine"

Everything to know about “Glutamine”



Glutamine is the most common amino acid found in your muscles – over 61% of skeletal muscle is Glutamine. Glutamine consists of 19% nitrogen, making it the primary transporter of nitrogen into your muscle cells.

Glutamine is one of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids in dietary protein, specifically it is a conditionally essential amino acid (being elevated to essential during periods of disease and muscle wasting typical of physical trauma). It is sold as an isolated amino acids as well as being found in high levels in dietary meats and eggs. It is found in very high levels in both whey and casein protein.

It is synthesized predominantly in skeletal muscle (approximately 90%) by a process facilitated by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from the amino acid glutamate and glutamic acid.

In healthy individuals it can be produced with no problem in the muscle, which is able to produce, store and release glutamine as required to maintain the appropriate glutamine blood concentration.

However, during some situations the production of glutamine homeostasis is threatened, glutamine reserves in skeletal muscle are depleted, and the important functions of this amino acid are inhibited. Such situations would include various forms of catabolic stress ranging from infection, surgery and, importantly, exhaustive exercise!

What Does Glutamine Do?


This amino acid is an important anabolic precursor for muscle growth following exercise In fact it the anabolic effects of glutamine include both an increase in protein synthesis (muscle hypertrophy or increased number of muscle cells) and increases in muscle cell expansion and filling with creatine, water and carbohydrate (muscle cell volumisation or “the pump.

Glutamine is the most important component of muscle protein, and helps repair and build muscle.

Here’s a list of glutamine benefits:


  • Glutamine has been linked to protein synthesis. It prevents your muscle from being catabolized (eaten up) in order to provide Glutamine for other cells in the body.
  • Glutamine benefits you by replenishing declining Glutamine levels during intense workouts.
  • Glutamine may serve to boost your immune system. For bodybuilders, this is important since heavy workouts tend to greatly deplete Glutamine levels. (Glutamine is a primary energy source for your immune system.)
  • Glutamine is one of the most important nutrients for your intestines.

Researchers are suggesting that Glutamine is the most important amino acid to the bodybuilder. It provides a component in muscle metabolism and cellular support not shared by any other single amino acid, making the benefits of L-Glutamine supplementation a realistic venture.

Sources and Synthesis


Glutamine is found in high amounts in most meat and animal products, as well as any dairy product or by-product such as whey or casein protein. Levels of glutamine in various foods range from:

  • Beef at 4.7% protein where meat in general fluctuates between 4.4% and 4.8%
  • Skim Milk at 8.08% protein whereas milk products in general tend to fluctuate between 8.7% and 9.2%[3]
  • White Rice at 11.1% protein
  • Corn at 16.2% protein
  • Tofu at 9.1% protein
  • Eggs at 4.3% protein

Glutamine Supplementation

In order to sustain a positive net protein balance and ensure the above listed benefits of supplementation, orally ingested glutamine can start with 0.1g/ kg of body mass (e.g. 7g for a 70kg individual) and result in a 50% rise in the plasma glutamine concentration 30 minutes following exercise. Return to pre-exercise baseline concentration should occur 1-2 hours following ingestion.

Ingestion alongside a protein source (whey or casein) and a BCAA supplement seems to provide even more superior advantages to glutamine alone, which is perhaps another reason to add a glutamine powder directly to your post exercise shake.

Studies have shown that oral ingestion of up to 28g PER DAY for 6 weeks result in no adverse effects[36]. Furthermore, increasing post exercise dose to 0.65g/ kg of body mass (e.g. 45.5g for a 70kg individual) was also tolerated well by healthy individuals.

How to Take

Bodybuilders should take 10 to 15 grams of L-Glutamine a day – supplementing it 2 to 3 times daily, with each serving at around 5 grams. You should also know that you may already be getting some L-Glutamine in your diet from other supplements you’re taking. Many protein supplements already have some L-Glutamine mixed into it, so read the labels to know for sure. Best times to take L-Glutamine powder is in the morning, after a workout, and at night before bed time.

Supplementation of L-glutamine tends to be dosed at 5 g or above, with higher doses being advised against due to excessive ammonia in serum. The lowest dose found to increase ammonia in serum has been 0.75 g/kg, or approximately 51 g for a 150 lb individual.

Everything to know about "L - Carnitine"

Everything to know about “L – Carnitine”

L-carnitine is an amino acid (a building block for proteins) that is naturally produced in the body.

L-carnitine supplements are used to increase L-carnitine levels in people whose natural level of L-carnitine is too low because they have a genetic disorder, are taking certain drugs (valproic acid for seizures), or because they are undergoing a medical procedure (hemodialysis for kidney disease) that uses up the body’s L-carnitine. It is also used as a replacement supplement in strict vegetarians, dieters, and low-weight or premature infants.

L-carnitine is formed in the liver and kidneys from the amino acids lysine and methionine. However, it is stored elsewhere in the body, primarily in muscle (including the heart), the brain, and even in sperm. In the diet, it mainly comes from meat and other animal products. You can get some from plant products like avocado and soybeans, but as a rule, meat is the best source—and the redder the better.

Carnitine occurs in two forms, or isomers: L-carnitine and D-carnitine. L-carnitine is the active form that plays a role in energy metabolism and production. It is produced within the body, but it can also be taken as a supplement or found in many different protein foods as well. In supplement form, it’s available as a capsule, liquid or even injectable.


L-carnitine helps to transport fat, particularly long-chain fatty acids, into the mitochondria of cells. Once there, they can be oxidized—used as fuel—to generate adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. L-carnitine does this cellular work both when you exercise and rest, but research confirms that it is especially effective during intense exercise.

The transfer of fat to energy is one of the main functions of carnitine

Owing to its fat-burning capabilities and the optimization of fat metabolism, carnitine is familiarly known as a ‘fat-burner’. Fatty acids are transported into the cells, where they are burned to release energy by being transported to mitochondria, the power stations of the cells. The useful long branched chain fatty acid molecules can only pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane through esterification with carnitine. This is contrary to medium and short-chain fatty acids which can penetrate the membrane without this biocarrier.

L-Carnitine Benefits


  • Increases Endurance
  • Enhances Weight Loss
  • Prevents Muscle Damage
  • Amps Up Fat Burning
  • Boosts Brain Function
  • Regulates Blood Sugar
  • Fatigue resistance
  • Burning fat as fuel
  • Decreased Muscle Soreness, Improved Recovery
  • Burning fat as fuel

L-Carnitine Food Sources

Animal products are the best natural sources of L-carnitine, with foods like grass-fed beef packing in the highest amount per serving. It can also be found in small amounts in some sources like vegetables and grains. Here are the foods that contain the most L-carnitine per serving, according to the National Institutes of Health


  • Beef steak, cooked, 4 ounces: 56–162 milligrams
  • Ground beef, cooked, 4 ounces: 87–99 milligrams
  • Whole milk, 1 cup: 8 milligrams
  • Codfish, cooked, 4 ounces: 4–7 milligrams
  • Chicken breast, cooked, 4 ounces: 3–5 milligrams
  • Ice cream, 1/2 cup: 3 milligrams
  • Cheddar cheese, 2 ounces: 2 milligrams
  • Whole wheat bread, 2 slices: 0.2 milligram
  • Asparagus, cooked, 1/2 cup: 0.1 milligram

L-Carnitine Supplements + Dosage

The standard L-carnitine dosage is 500–2,000 milligrams daily. Based on most current research available, a dose of up to two grams per day can be used safely and effectively with minimal side effects.

The dosage may vary by the type of L-carnitine supplement, however. Acetyl-L-carnitine, for example, can be used in doses up to 2,500 milligrams per day while the dose for L-Carnitine L-Tartrate, a form typically used to enhance athletic performance, can range all the way up to 4,000 milligrams.


One of the best times to take L-carnitine is post-workout, but you can take it with any other high-carb, high-protein meal throughout the day. If you want to stack L-carnitine with other fat-burning ingredients between meals, consider using the acetyl-L-carnitine form.

Everything to know about "CLA"

Everything to know about “CLA”


CLA, or conjugated linoleic acid, belongs to the omega family of fatty acids. Specifically, CLA is a mixture of at least 28 positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, which is an essential omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Essential fatty acids cannot be produced by the body alone and therefore must be consumed through the diet.

How It Works

CLA reduces body fat by increasing basal metabolic rates. In other words, it helps the body convert food more efficiently into energy.



One trial, monitoring the benefits of CLA supplementation on muscle development, showed that consuming 7.2 grams of CLA per day, when accompanied by a bodybuilding regimen, led to an increase in skin-fold corrected arm girth, leg press gains, and overall body mass, as compared to a placebo group which performed the same routine without CLA.

CLA Benefits

1. CLA for Weight Loss and Increased Metabolic Rate

The main reason that CLA is so popular is its connection to weight loss.

It has been proposed that consuming CLA can help increase weight loss and decrease body fat through a series of biochemical reactions that act to increase the basal metabolic rate. Our basal metabolic rate is the minimum amount of energy the body requires to function, whereby an increase in BMR means that more calories are burned for the body to function.

CLA is involved in a series of metabolic reactions that regulate fat tissue in the body. It is thought that through increasing BMR, CLA acts to alter the body fat to muscle ratio and increase energy expenditure.

2. Enhanced muscle growth

Despite a decrease in body fat percentage, an overall decrease in weight is often not observed. This is because CLA has been shown to effectively increase muscle to fat ratio and act to enhance the growth of lean muscle mass. As muscles are metabolically active, an increase in muscle mass means the body burns more calories at rest.

3. Lowers cholesterol and blood glucose levels

There are also several other health benefits associated with this CLA supplementation. For example, CLA has been shown to help reduce blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood glucose levels, reducing risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. For example, Kritchevsky et al. (1994) found that supplementation with 0.5g per day of CLA in rabbits caused a significant reduction in both LDL and total cholesterol, and an examination of the rabbit’s heart showed lower levels of atherosclerosis when compared to rabbits who did not receive CLA treatment.

4. Supports the immune system

When dieting and exercising regularly, the body can become run down and become more susceptible to illnesses. However, supplementing with CLA may help to boost the immune system. In several studies, CLA has been shown to increase immune system response and may also act to prevent catabolic (tissue breakdown) effects of the immune system during times of illness.

CLA and Fat Burning
The documented benefit of CLA in reducing body fat is explained by two main theories.

1) The first is the reduction of lipid uptake into adipocytes (fat cells) by inhibition of a specific enzyme called lipoprotein lipase (15-16). This mechanism is facilitated predominantly by the t10 isomer of CLA (16).

2) The second mechanism considered is the proposed benefit of CLA in reducing the accumulation of triacylglycerol in fat cells. Triacylglycerol is a blood lipid which enables transfer of glucose and fat from the liver.

In animal model studies on mice CLA was found to reduce accumulation of triacylglycerol in fat cells (17). This benefit was also seen in cultures of human cells with the t10 isomer (18-19).

A separate study demonstrated that fat loss in rats fed a CLA supplement is due to a reduction in size of fat cells by 15 to 29% compared to controls (20).

These results indicate the CLA can reduce both synthesis and storage of fat cells, as such reducing levels of body fat in both animal and human laboratory models.

Further studies on CLA fat burning

Another benefit found is that in an animal model a CLA supplemented diet increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure, leading to greater fat burning capacity in the skeletal muscle tissue (15, 21).

As such, this indicates that CLA can potentially not only reduce body fat; but then also assists removing fatty deposits in our muscles.

Sources of CLA

CLA can be found in a number of commonly consumed foods. In particular, animal products including meat and dairy products.

However, in order to achieve all the benefits of CLA, the amount consumed through diet alone isn’t always enough. CLA tablets and capsules can be added to your diet plan and training regime.


Food mg of CLA per gram of fat
Fresh Ground BeefLamb



Cows Milk

Cottage Cheese

Cheddar Cheese








When to Take CLA Tablets and How Much

There are various dosages of CLA recommended. In order to help reduce body fat, between 1.8 to 7g of CLA is recommended daily. For optimum results, we recommend 2 soft gels to be taken with meals 1 to 3 times daily.


Everything to know about "Pre Workouts"

Everything to know about “Pre Workouts”

When you arrive at the gym, ready to dive into your workouts, you obviously want them to be as focused and effective as possible, The Goal is to absolutely destroy your workout, that’s when a pre workout comes in handy!


Pre-workout is designed to provide you with the energy and nutrients to maximise your results while minimising damage to your body. Pre-workouts provide energy to push you further into your workout. They also offer nutrients to help to protect your muscles as you are using them.

Experience Factors:

  • Increase Energy
  • Get a Pump
  • Increase Endurance
  • Increase Strength

Results Factors:

  • Burn More Fat
  • Build More Muscle
  • Increase Strength Gains
  • Decrease muscle breakdown during training
  • Increase protein synthesis
  • Improve energy and focus
  • Improve nutrient delivery and assimilation
  • Increase metabolic rate (fat burning)
  • Create an optimal hormonal environment

Which Substances Are Proven To Do This?


Now there are really only a handful of supplements that actually help you achieve these goals.

These are:

  • Caffeine – proven to help boost strengthand muscle endurance
  • Theanine – reduces mental stressand improves focus and alertness
  • Beta-Alineine – reduces fatigue and increases exercise capacity
  • Citrulline Malate – improves muscle endurance
  • Betaine – improves muscle enduranceand increases strength
  • Ornithine – reduces fatigue

When Should I Take Pre-Workout?


You should take pre-workout around 30 minutes before you are going to begin your exercise routine. This gives your body the optimal time to take in the nutrients so as to use them effectively. If taken too early, the body will start to waste the benefits of the shake and you will lose the effects during your workout.

If you take pre-workout at the start of the day, but go to the gym in the evening after work, the shake will become essentially useless as your body will have digested most of the nutrients and stimulants.

Pre-workout is most effective on an empty stomach. This makes them ideal for a morning workout, but if you are exercising later in the day you can just time your meals for a couple of hours before you are due at the gym. Don’t forget, the pre-workout is providing you with energy, so you don’t need to worry about getting a quick calorie boost from a snack.

Drop sets, Super sets and Giant sets

Drop sets, Super sets and Giant sets

Advanced techniques are used to boost the intensity of a workout, improve muscular endurance and shock your body to prevent a plateau. This kind of training can also enhance fat loss, and because it incorporates very little rest you also get some cardiovascular benefits. In addition, these techniques all force more blood into your muscles, which helps deliver nutrients and amino acids to the tissues and accelerates the repair process. These techniques can be intense, so use them sparingly.  The drop set, super set, and giant set are 3 such techniques that will intensify your workout and lead to more growth.

What is a Drop Set?

A drop set is performing two or more sets immediately following each other using lighter weight with each subsequent set.  The primary benefit of the drop set is increased time under tension.  On the first set the muscle fails with a heavy load.  But by dropping the weight the muscle can continue to contract.  This is due to the different fibers utilized for different loads and movement speeds.  Drops sets allow more total reps to be performed which can result in more muscle fiber recruitment and consequent growth.

Consider this strategy  for choosing how much weight you should be lifting:

  • Set 1: – Choose a weight you’d fail at 4-6 reps.
  • Set 2: – Reduce weight by 5 lbs. 8-10 reps
  • Set 3: – Reduce weight by 5 lbs. 10-12 reps
  • Set 4: – Reduce weight by 5 lbs. 12-15 reps
  • Set 5: – Reduce weight by 5 to 10 lbs. 15-20 reps

What is a Superset?


superset is a combination of two or three moves that either work the same bodypart or opposing muscle groups, and the exercises are done back to back with no rest in between. Typical supersets are a seated row with a push-up for back and chest and an overhead press with a seated lateral raise for shoulders. Between supersets you rest only long enough to recover and catch your breath, then hit it again. This helps you save time, burn fat and spike your metabolism.

Super sets can also be performed using the same muscle group with different exercises.  For example, after completing a set of skull crushers you can finish off your triceps by going directly into a close grip bench press.  This changes the loading on the target muscle.  And the compound movement of the close grip press means other muscles like the chest can help out.  The end result is more total work being done by the muscle which will lead to more gains.

What is a Giant Set?


giant set is a circuit of four or more moves for one bodypart performed one after another with little to no rest in between. For example, you might do an overhead press, a lateral raise, a rear-delt raise and an upright row for shoulders, rest a few minutes to catch your breath, then repeat. Giant sets increase the intensity of a workout by overloading a muscle group and pushing it to its limit to burn fat and boost the cardiorespiratory response.

For example, a chest giant set might consist of 10 reps on a flat bench press, 10 reps of dumbbell pec flies, 10 reps on an decline bench press and 10 reps of incline dumbbell presses. You can tailor the giant set to whatever muscle group you’d like to work (i.e., back, legs, arms, etc.), and you can create any combination of corresponding exercises.

Giant sets have been shown to improve the weight lifted during one-rep maximum, peak and shuttle-run performances as well as improving lean muscle mass, reports a study in Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research.



Aerobics can be defined as a physical activity that uses and supplies oxygen + fat, utilizing it for energy production in a specific time frame!

Most of us aspire to have a lean, well toned body.

However, before setting out to achieve this goal, you need to focus on your cardio vascular and respiratory function, commonly referred to CV or aerobic exercise, by developing a rudimentary fitness base and after that you can progress in to body toning and sports specific activity.

Out of many energy production systems in the human body, Aerobics falls under the endurance system or aerobic glycolysis.

For many, “aerobics” means attending a class in order to get an effective workout. However, there are many other alternative forms of effective exercises such as:

  • Cycling (indoor or outdoor)
  • Walking
  • Swimming
  • Dancing (especially Latin American)
  • Rowing
  • Shopping
  • Walking your pet
  • Playing a sport with your kids

After a period of participation some might feel stagnated with their current exercises.

At this point, an option might be to join a group class, which might also include many exciting aerobic methods which are evolving around the world apart from traditional aerobics, such as:

  • Latin Dance based classes
  • Aqua Aerobics
  • Step Aerobics
  • Boxing or Kick boxing based
  • Spinning
  • Group Rowing
  • Outdoor activity

By attending a class you are more likely to be motivated, as a good instructor can lead a class safely and effectively in a fun filled environment and you also get to make new friends.

Remember to select a mode of exercise which suits your fitness level and personal preference.


Important points to remember

  • Do a fitness/health assessment before starting an appropriate program
  • Gradual warm up for 10 minutes and 20-30 minutes aerobic session
  • Maintain your target heart rate (Ask your Trainer/Instructor/Doctor)
  • Proper clothing and shoes for appropriate surface
  • If you develop any pain or discomfort after exercising you should inform it to your (Trainer/Instructor/Doctor)
  • Gradual progression
  • Appropriate cool down
  • Aerobics/CV training should be done at least 3 times a week
  • Major Benefits:
  • Increase lung capacity
  • Increase circulation
  • Lowers fat level
  • Burns more calories
  • Lowering blood pressure (due to efficient heart function)
  • Faster recovery from strenuous activity
  • Improves muscle and skeletal tone


With this basic knowledge, your next walk or aerobic class will be something to look forward to, –  as aerobic exercise is one of the best natural medicines you can give your heart and lungs!

High Intensity Training

High Intensity Training

Whether or not High Intensity Training (H.I.T.) is safe to practice is one of the most frequently asked questions I hear universally from clients as well as many other fitness enthusiasts.

People often wonder if and how they should try and incorporate H.I.T. into their exercise and fitness routines, and if by doing more sessions or more repetitions of each session if they will be able to  achieve faster results.

The recent surge in the sudden popularity of H.I.T. is largely due to a result of the increased publicity and hype regarding the “miraculous” and “immediate” results possible by doing H.I.T. reported by both the Fitness and Fashion industry media as well as the inordinate amount of discussion about H.I.T.  across a range of social media outlets portraying H.I.T. as the “total solution” and answer to all of your fitness goals, and hopes and dreams. In other words, there has been a great deal of inaccuracies reported regarding the truth about H.I.T. which, in reality does not enable you to simply obtain your ideal body quickly and cheaply.  However, done correctly AND with proper supervision by a professional fitness instruction, H.I.T. can be an effective method of fitness training for you, but it is NOT an overnight or “quick-fix” one-stop solution.  It is therefore crucially important to be aware of what H.I.T. is and what it is NOT.


Here are some common myths to help guide you:

Common Myths About H.I.T.

  • I.T. will enable you to obtain a “ripped body” quickly and safely.
  • I.T. will enable you to push your mind and body to its maximum in a minimal amount of time.
  • I.T. allows you to place a low emphasis on nutrition and recovery, as long as you have the will to succeed.
  • It is realistic to use professional fitness models to demonstrate how H.I.T. can work for you.


As a practice, H.I.T. has been an integral part of overall sports conditioning training for decades to help athletes increase their strength and performance. Over my 15 year career in training professional athletes and clients worldwide, I would agree that this described kind of H.I.T. is authentic and truly is the “real deal”. Regardless of whether or not you practice H.I.T. as it has been performed historically, or if you choose instead to participate in one of the more recent H.I.T. programs designed and created by fitness professionals, it is vital to consider the following factors in conjunction with a selection of practical exercises according to your particular goals, as follows:

Benefits of High Intensity Training (H.I.T.) Done Properly

When you progress with H.I.T. at a rate appropriate to your initial level of fitness, your body’s energy systems are challenged in such a manner resulting in a post caloric burning effect up to 38 hours it is known among fitness industry as “Exercise Post Oxygen Consumption” (EPOC), or “Afterburn”.


H.I.T. is a time efficient form of exercise and a type of highly intense physical activity which will enable you to achieve double the amount of benefits than other forms of more leisurely forms of regular exercise including a more intense excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) or post work-out calorie burning effect (commonly known as “after-burn”).


H.I.T. is a more intelligent way to reach your fitness goals, – whether you want to improve your health, reduce weight and/or improve your physical appearance.

H.I.T. provides both an intense physical and mental challenge to your body and mind, – “In mens sana en corpore sano” (A healthy mind in a healthy body)!

Done properly, and under the supervised professional fitness guidance, by practicing H.I.T., physical results are visible in a short period of time.

However, prior to undertaking a serious program of H.I.T., you should only do so under the supervision of a credible and diligent fitness professional. In addition, you should only consider participating in a H.I.T. program that will encompass the following list of health and fitness protocols:


  • Health history
  • Exercise history and Current Fitness Level/Ability
  • Movement ability
  • Nutrition intake and dietary planning
  • Rest and Recovery
  • Exercise programming and progression
  • Negative or Positive effect on health & fitness
  • Environmental factors (i.e. heat index, impact of exercising at different altitudes)


Genetics, as well as your state of mental and physical health, plays a contributing role  in planning  your health, fitness and performance goals.  For example, personally, I love Basketball and American Football, and would love to imagine myself playing for the Miami Heat or Miami Dolphins since I have the right mind set and mental fortitude, as well as the agility, speed, strength and maintain proper nutrition accordingly.  However, the reality is that, I’m too short for Basketball and I don’t have the muscle size to join the NFL, – so “it is what it is”.  So instead, the best option for me would be to select a skill related sport, such as Fencing or a weight class sport like Boxing or Mixed Martial Arts (MMA).


Once you come to terms with your goals, challenges, and the realities of your own physical and mental limitations, you can embrace a plan of action for H.I.T. that is right for you.  No matter what physical or mental challenges or limitation you may encounter, a structured and supervised H.I.T. program will still enable you to challenge yourself to give your personal best and improve your training every day regardless of your age, gender, or level of fitness!


Since the Internet and social media outlets are often flooded with an overwhelming amount of misinformation, it is a challenge to disseminate all of this information in their efforts to obtain quick and lasting fitness results by naively undertaking a misguided or improperly structured H.I.T. program. However, there is a way to combat this overflow of misinformation by using common sense and understanding that a successful H.I.T. program requires a significant amount of patience to progress and build a solid base of fitness.  Conversely, a lack of appreciation for the time it takes to do H.I.T. properly, can decrease your immunity, increase your chances for the onset of injury, lower your metabolism, and increase your negative hormone response (i.e. raise your cortisol levels) due to the mental and physical stress of increased frustration over lack of immediate results.


In addition, it is important to keep in mind that while we might admire the incredible and impressive level of physical fitness of a particular professional athlete, or a fitness model, their results did not happen overnight! These fitness professionals have devoted their careers and their lives to achieving the kind of physical fitness that is generally not realistic for the general population.  In fact, it is worth a reminder that these fitness professionals have invested time (AND years), money, dedication, commitment, sacrifice, hard work, clean nutrition and proper recovery with a plan of good fitness.


When training new clients in any H.I.T. program, the pace at which they progress initially depends on their level of fitness and overall health at the commencement of any training program, as well as their mental attitude and commitment to improving their fitness level.  As part of my initial fitness assessment process for all of my H.I.T. clients, I begin training in the first phase of training with a gradual progression of exercises such as a combination of the use of bands, cables, personal bodyweight, free weights and medicine balls.  Then, I would consider,  when appropriate, moving on to the use of punching bags and the use of mitts.  This training progression would increase incrementally as fitness improves.  These principles apply across the full  spectrum of fitness modalities (Cardio, Strength, SAQ, Power, Flexibility and Stability) as well in order to ensure that my clients are guided to achieve their goals and personal bests in a thorough in-depth professional guided manner.


Fad exercises often are characterized by unseemingly inter-connected arbitrary exercises claiming to challenge individuals to  burn more calories per minute without providing all relevant information pertaining to specifics calories burned or detailing relevant health risks In addition, often the rationale and justification behind using various protocols (e.g. sprints, Olympic lifts, muscle ups, box jumps in succession) are not provided in any appropriate level of detail to ensure adequate health safety and minimize risk of injury.


In other words, just because an exercise is difficult, it does not mean it is in your best health benefit or fitness interest to perform it nor will it necessarily help you achieve your goals.  The key to successful H.I.T. is a full awareness of what H.I.T. should and should not be.  With the proper knowledge of H.I.T., comes power, and if done properly, H.I.T. can be an extremely beneficial form of exercise and training.


However, conversely, if you apply H.I.T. protocols on unconditioned individuals (without adequate prior long-term exercise progression), science, application and medical evidence indicates that such highly  repetitive and intense exercises can affect your health and fitness in a negative and potentially damaging manner.


If H.I.T. is not done correctly, you may be at risk for some of these alarming negative effects as follows:


  • I.T. can decrease metabolism if you don’t plan nutrition, exercise programming and recovery accordingly and under professional supervision.
  • I.T. can raise blood pressure and heart rate to a dangerous level and contribute to the  onset of cardiovascular (CV) health risks and possible disease.
  • I.T.  done incorrectly can lead to the overstraining of muscles and joints  and possibly lead to further acute or chronic injury.
  • I.T.  can cause a possible decrease in blood glucose level and thus diminish energy level and impact quality of performance during training.
  • I.T. can negatively impact your endocrine system, lowering your immunity and leaving you susceptible to developing coughs, colds, fevers, and  other viral and bacterial infections due to lack of appropriate immune and hormonal functions.
  • I.T. can also unnecessarily cause exercise induced Asthma and exercise induced Rhabdomyolysis (i.e. when muscle protein leaks into the blood stream and causes  acute renal failure, blood clotting, abnormal heart rhythm due to elevation of blood potassium).

Therefore, if you are intent on benefitting from what can be a highly beneficial form of serious exercise, done properly and under adequate supervision, H.I.T. can be highly beneficial.  Please keep in mind though, these crucial steps when doing H.I.T. training to ensure you reach your goals in a healthy, progressive and a sustainable way, as follows:

Is the exercise routine comfortable for your body to execute with proper technique?

Consult a trained Fitness professional at each level of fitness progression to help you gauge the appropriate pace and level of progression suited to your fitness level as you advance.


If you do consult a Fitness Trainer, ensure that he or she possesses the appropriate Fitness Industry credentials, background, and experience, in addition to a proven track record of success.  When working with a Fitness Trainer, always seek clarification on any exercises, etc. and inform him or her if you experience any pain while exercising.  A good trainer not only is happy to answer questions, but also welcomes them, as a sign of sincere commitment!


Adhere to a plan of healthy and adequate eating as much as you take care in following a supervised progressive plan of safe and properly supervised H.I.T. Do not be tempted by lures of offers of “free” or quick fix exercises or diets that promise you instant results, or simply look “cool”. If it sounds too good to be true, it probably is!


Above all be patient, and remember that in order to help you achieve your short and long term health and fitness goals – it will not happen overnight. Once you are engaged in a long term commitment to your health and life fitness, and understand that good health and fitness is a way of living that you must embrace for the rest of your life, with adequate education, training, and knowledge, will come this power, – the power for you to make the best and smartest choices for your health

Fitness Facts

Fitness Facts

Eating small meals every 2-3 hours will increase your metabolism and reduce fat storage. Make sure that these are healthy meals containing balanced amounts of protein, carbohydrates and fat.

During your workouts do exercises that incorporate compound movements rather than simple ones. This will not only help in burning more calories, but will also tone more muscle at once!

Fat free foods, when eaten in excess, will still be stored as fat! Fat free cookies and crackers are made up of a whole lot of SUGAR! The secret is out! Sugar is just as fattening of a substance than fat itself, when eaten in excess.

Pump some iron! Did you know that 1 lb of muscle burns 30-50 calories per day, while 1 lb of fat only burns about 9 calories per day? The more muscle your body contains the more calories you burn each day.

Make a habit of weighting and measuring yourself monthly and tracking your gains and losses. This will prevent gradual weight gain from creeping up when you least expect it.

Millions of people drink an average of 2 regular soft drinks a day, which is a total of 300 calories. When you add these extra 300 calories up over a year, the result will be over 15kg of weight gain!

The easiest way to effortlessly lose weight is to not eat three hours before bed. By doing so, you will reduce the amount of fat your body stores throughout the night.

Fitness Components

Fitness Components

6 Components of Good Fitness

A good fitness program should include the following components of physical activity; rest; and nutrition:

  • Cardio Vascular & Respiratory (heart, lung and circulatory benefits)
  • Strength Training (musculoskeletal)
  • Flexibility (e.g. increasing range of motion etc.)
  • Functional Training (movement specific)
  • Rest (mental and physical)
  • Nutrition (well-balanced)

However, the majority of most people only focuses on one of the above components, and overlooks the other vital benefits that are instrumental to making the difference between an effective fitness program and an unsuccessful one.

If you can make a commitment to yourself to modify  your daily diet and approach towards your long term fitness, you are well on your way to making a significant difference in your life to reduce stress, gain more energy, and enjoy long term health benefits.  In addition, you can further ensure your long-term success if you not only practice “clean eating” and a balance of a variety of regular physical activity (e.g. CV, strength training, sports conditioning, etc.), but also if you do so under the proper supervision of a trained fitness professional.

1) Cardio Vascular/Respiratory Exercise:

Purpose: Getting oxygen to your working muscle while removing your metabolic waste products thereby improving your heart, lung and circulatory function.

Duration: Ideally 20-30 minutes.  The amount of time you exercise would require modification if you are under medical supervision. Consider your fitness level (Duration and intensity should be modified) before beginning exercise.

Health Benefits: Cardio vascular exercise can help you reduce your (LDL, – i.e. bad) cholesterol level, prevent heart and lung disease, lower your blood sugar level, reduce your risk for hypertension.

Common Activities: Swimming, Aerobic Classes, Cycling, Walking the Dog, Hiking, evening or morning walks with your family and friends.

2) Strength Training:

Purpose: Improve the function of your musculoskeletal system by increasing your strength and power and muscular endurance.

Duration: This can be in the form of resistance training (under supervision), with the appropriate amount of proper weight, rounds and repetitions (reps,) of each type of exercise/(a set), as well as adequate rest for a healthy adult, e.g. –  3 sets of 6-10 repetitions for each major muscle group with 30 seconds rest inbetween rounds is ideal.

Benefits: Strength training can aid not only in the prevention and controlling of Osteoporosis, other types of Arthritis, muscle imbalances, rehabilitation from injury, but also will help you increase the ease and ability in which you will be able to perform your daily physical activities.

Common Activities: Sports activities (like lifting heavy weights and other strength training), carrying your kids, moving furniture, lifting heavy objects etc.  Strength Training protocols may vary in athletic training for different sports will cover them in a subsequent follow up article in the near future.

3) Flexibility:

Purpose: Improve your ability to flex, – i.e. extend and rotate around your joints without injury and restriction.

 In general, flexibility exercises can be done in the form of static stretching (without movement) ideally hold each major muscle to the point of stretch and “NOT TO THE POINT OF PAIN” time limit is 40 – 60 seconds and then repeated one to two times.

  Regularly performing flexibility exercises will enable you to increase your range and freedom of motion, your ability to perform daily activities with ease, as well as to reduce and minimize any muscle tension.

Common Activities: Reaching for an object upwards, bending down, sudden turning and almost any activity.

4) Functional Training:

Purpose: Enhance daily activity (walking, lifting, carrying etc.) or specific activity (Sports specific, physical rehabilitation specific etc.)

Duration: Can be repeated as you often as you required for a specific task without over-taxing your body in specific way to aid your intended final tasks (E.g. – while playing tennis on a clay surface tennis court, you might rally for an average of 15 seconds, rest 15 seconds, and repeat the cycle again with the same activity until you have achieved a comfortable level of physical challenge.

Benefits:  Regularly doing functional training not only will enable you to be able to reduce the risk of activity related injury and but also improve your productivity in a specific task with less physical stress on your body.

Common Activities:  household chores, playing with kids, cooking, sports and other physical activities, – e.g. anything from recreational physical activities, to competitive sports, to post rehabilitative corrective exercises and sports conditioning.

5) Rest:

Purpose: To recover from mental and physical stress.

Duration: Allocate one to two hours a day to relax and get adequate sleep also one day a week to totally relax.

Benefits:  Regularly  ensuring your body gets an appropriate amount of daily rest will aid in the prevention and control of mental and physical stress found to be linked with certain Cancers, high blood pressure, heart disease, gastrointestinal tract issues, and stress fractures.

Common Activities: Regular massages, Jacuzzi/or spa therapy, listening to music, spending time outdoors in a natural and calm setting, many forms of meditation, etc.

6) Nutrition:

Purpose: To maintain and regulate bodily functions.

Key components: Proteins (repair body cells), Carbohydrates and Fat (provide source of energy) Vitamins and minerals (regulate bodily functions).

Benefits:  Maintaining proper and balanced nutrition can aid not only in the prevention of a number of diet related diseases, provide adequate energy for your bodily functions, but also help facilitate the healing of physical injuries.

Exercise or Food?

Exercise or Food?

This is a global issue among many fitness seeking diet-conscious people who are trying to be healthy, look good, prevent disease, lose weight (reduce fat), and to carry on daily  physical and/or athletic activities.

So what do most people do in order to achieve such goals as listed above? Many popular beliefs that the #1 way to GET RESULTS immediately and over the long-term include the following list:

  • Exercising more and eating less
  • Exercising and eat what they like
  • Eating healthy without exercising
  • Eating huge quantities and exercising a lot

However, all of these approached are misnomers and yet are common mistakes people make in their fervent and zealous efforts to improve their physical appearance and achieve their health and fitness goals.  Instead, and according to worldwide research and studies performed by top fitness industry institutions, it’s widely recommended that exercising in accordance with your lifestyle requirements, eating healthy quantities of food in a balanced diet, and finding a healthy balance of all of your activities, is the only way to permanently reach your GOAL!  In addition, regularly maintaining this healthy lifestyle is the key to your long-term success!

Over my ten year fitness career, I have personally helped to facilitate such positive results training a number of worldwide clients who have sought my services for a variety of reasons, – ranging from a desire to improve sports specific performance; strength and conditioning training; other athletic goals;  body shaping or toning; weight reduction and fat loss; and/or simply for other health or aesthetic reasons.   With all of these varied fitness goals, one common denominator rang true for all of my clients’ successes,  – all of them achieved success with properly planned exercise regime  in combination with a proper plan of daily nutrition under the guidance of a trained fitness professional.

Different Foods Suit Different People

Different groups in exercising, diet-conscious populations have varying nutritional dietary requirements based on their different body structure, age, weight, and current level of fitness and activity requirements. One portion size/quantity does NOT fit, as previously stated; each individual will have different energy requirements based on their particular body structure and metabolism levels.  Listed below are a number of important reasons people should consider engaging in a plan of balanced and healthy eating:

Disease Prevention through Proper Diet – this will fall under eating for health benefit as certain vitamins minerals, fibers, photo chemicals and antioxidants are known to reduce/prevent and eliminate below conditions (High blood pressure, cholesterol, and high and low blood-sugar levels, other cardio vascular problems, Stress related medical issues, Osteoporosis etc.)

Rehabilitation – Certain vitamins and minerals (C, E, B, D, A, K, Iron, zinc, calcium, potassium, etc.) Proteins (whey, egg, casein) and fats(Omega 3 &6) are known to speed up your recovery (Post injury and Surgical, from other medical complications)

General Fitness and Appearance – This is the combination of all food groups Proteins, Fruits, Carbohydrates, Vegetables, Fats , Water taken at right time , right quantity to enhance your results for general fitness or cosmetic goals, growth and development and daily energy requirement this is the most popular reason among (Older Adults, Kids/youth , Adult men and women)

Sports Specific – This is Performance nutrition this is to manipulate all food and hydration in order to enhance your sports performance and recovery .before one could decide on this have to look in to key areas such as depends of the sports, Athletes playing position, structure of the person and body mass, lean mass, metabolic factors, Energy requirement, recovery aspect etc. As this will vary (Cricket, Athletics, Tennis, Rugby, Swimming, Professional Modeling etc.)

Regardless of your motivation to improve and maintain your health and fitness, it’s important to blend a number of key components into a progressive exercise plan in order to achieve your health, fitness, and aesthetic and/or physical/athletic performance goals. The combination of these basic fitness components together with an established fitness and exercise plan should include a healthy blend of the following list below.

  • Cardio Vascular & Respiratory Exercise (heart, lung and circulatory benefits)
  • Strength Training (musculoskeletal physical activity)
  • Flexibility (improve range of motion)
  • Functional Training (movement specific)
  • Rest (mental and physical)
  • Basic Components of Nutrition

These basic components of nutrition are crucial in order for our bodies to exist, move, and recover with proper combination can help us enhance our physical activities and/or athletic performance on a regular basis. Proper nutrition can be obtained by maintaining a balanced amount of the key three nutrient factors listed below:

  • Macro Nutrients – protein, carbohydrates, and fat combined to provide major source of energy, promoting cellular repair and restoring hormone functions and regularize metabolism.
  • Micro Nutrients – vitamins and minerals in conjunction with macro nutrients will help you achieve overall well being, health, performance, cosmetic goals, aid in nerve conduction, improve muscle contractions, and maintain electrolyte balances.
  • Water – proper water consumption helps you maintain adequate blood levels, transport nutrients throughout your body, as well as regulate your body temperature and to enhance cellular functions.

By blending these three nutrient factors listed above, you can increase your energy level and minimize health risks. Conversely, if you do not blend these three vital nutrients into your daily meals, then your overall health, fitness, and performance will be compromised and negatively impacted. Isolating even just one nutrient factor could even compromise your ability to achieve and expect lasting results.

Whether your health and fitness goals are motivated by your desire to improve your overall health, fitness and daily diet, your physical appearance (i.e. toning and/or weight reduction), or your athletic or physical performance, it is important to establish a plan of action that incorporates an adequate amount of nutrition and regular exercise based on your individual requirements.

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